J. R. R. Tolkien: The Lost Road And Other Writings


THE ETYMOLOGIES

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A B D E G 3 I K L M N O P R S T U W Y

adj. adjective
adv. adverb
cpd. compound
f. feminine
g.sg. genitive singular
inf. infinitive
intr. intransitive
m. masculine
pa.t. past tense
pl. plural
p.p. past participle
prep. preposition
q.v. quod vide, `which see'
sg. singular
tr. transitive

The sign + means 'poetic or archaic'.

Dan. Danian
Dor. Doriathrin
Eld. Eldarin
EN Exilic Noldorin (also refered to as 'Exilic', but most often simply as N)
Ilk. Ilkorin
L Lindarin
N Noldorin
ON Old Noldorin (i. e. the Korolambë or Kornoldorin, see the Lhammas §5)
Oss. Ossiriandeb (the name in the Lhammas, where however the form Ossiriandic is also found)
PQ Primitive Quendian
T Telerin

An asterrisk prefixed to a form means that it is 'hypothetical', deduced to have existed from later, recorded forms.


A

AB-, ABAR-
refuse, deny, *ába¯ro refuser, one who does not go forth; Q Avar (or Avaro), pl. Avari = Elves who newer left Middle-earth or began the march; N Afor, pl. Efuir, Efyr (ON abóro). Cf. AWA.
[This entry as first written gave the root-meaning as 'go away, depart', translated *ába¯ro as 'departer, one who goes forth', and defined Avari as 'Elves who left Middle-earth' (see p. 344). An additional entry seems to allow for both developments from the root-meaning: 'AB- retreat, move back, refuse'.]
{Tedy abaro (doslova 'odmítac`') byla patrne` nadávka, kterou se navzájem c`astovali vychodní a západní elfové: jedni z`e odmítli zu`stat, druzí z`e odmítli odejít.}
AD-
entrance, gate, *adnó: Q ando gate; N annon, pl. ennyn great gate, Q andon (pl. andondi).
AIWË-
(smal) bird. Q aiwe, N aew. Cf. Aiwenor 'Birdland' = lower air.
[For Aiwenor(ë) see the Ambarkanta and diagrams, IV. 236 etc.]
AK-
narrow, confined. *akrá: Q arka narrow; N agr, agor. Cf. N Aglond, Aglon defile, pass between high walls, also as proper name; cf. lond, lonn path [LOD]. Q aksa narrow path, ravine.
AKLA-R-
See KAL. Q alka ray of light; alkar or alkare radianc brilliance; alkarinqa radiant, glorious. N aglar glory, aglareb glorious.
ÁLAK-
rushing. *ála¯ko¯ rush, rushing flight, wild wind: N alag rushing, impetuous; alagos storm of wind. Cf. Anc-olagon dragon-name [NAK]. Related to LAK2.
*alk-wa¯ swan: Q alqa; T alpa; ON alpha; N alf; Ilk. alch; Dan. ealc. Cf. Alqalonde Swan-road or Swan-haven, city of the Teleri [LOD].
ÁLAM-
elm-tree. Q alalme, also lalme; N lalf (lelf) or lalven, pl lelvin; Ilk. lalm, pl. lelmin; Dan. alm. The stem is perhaps LÁLAM, q.v., but some hold it related to ALA since the elm was held blessed and beloved by the Eldar.
[The end of this entry, from 'but eome hold it', was an addition. Probably at the same time a stem AL- was added with derivatives alma 'good fortune', alya 'rich', etc.; but this entry was struck out. The same derivative words are found under GALA.]
ÁLAT-
large, great in size. Q alta [...] alat- as in Alataire = Belegoer [AY].
AM1-
mother. Q amil or amme mother; Ilk. aman, pl. emuin. (N uses a different word, naneth, hypocoristic [pet-name form] nana [NAN]).
AM2-
up: usually in form amba-. Q prefix am- up; amba adv. up(wards); amban upward slope, hill-side; ambapenda, ampenda uphill (adj.); see PEN. N am up; am-bend, amben uphill; amon hill, pl. emuin, emyn; am-rûn uprising, sunrise, Orient = Q ambaron (g.sg. ambaronen) or Ambaróne.
ANA1-
Cf. NA1. to, towards. *anta- to present, give: Q anta- give; anna gift; ante (f.), anto (m.) giver. Cf. Yav-anna (YAB); Aryante [AR1]. N anno to give; ant gift. [Added:] Q anta face.
ANA2-
Cf. NA2. be exist. [Added:] anwa real, actual, true.
ÁNAD-, ANDA-
*anda¯  long: Q anda; N and, ann. Cf. names Andram long-wall [RAMBA¯], Andfang, Anfang Longbeard, one of the tribes of Dwarves (pl. Enfeng) [SPÁNAG].
ÁNAK-
Cf. NAK bite. Q anca jaw; N anc; cf. Ancalagon [ÁLAK].
ANÁR-
sun; derivative of NAR1. *ana¯r-: Q Anar sun; EN Anor.
ANGA¯-
iron. Q anga; N ang. Q angaina of iron; N angren, pl. engrin.
AWA
away, forth; out. Q ava outside; Avakúma [KUM]. Exterior Void beyond the World; au-, ava- privative prefixes = N ar {see AR2), as avanóte without number, numberless [NOT]. [Added:] Avalóna, cf. lóna [LONO].

B

BAD-
*bad- judge. Cf. MBAD. Not in Q. N bauð (ba¯d-) judgement; badhor, baðron judge. [Pencilled adition.]

D

D- ;

E

E- ;

G

G- ;

3

3- ;

I

I- ;

K

KUM-
void. Q kúma the Void; kumna empty; N cûn empty.

L

L- ;

M

MA3-
hand.
MAK-
sword, or as a verb-stem: fight (with sword), cleave. *makla: Q makil sword; N magl, magol. *makta¯: Q mahta- wield a weapon (blended with ma3-ta¯, see MA3), fight: hence mahtar warior = N maethor. N maeth battle, fight (not of general host but of two or a few), maetha to fight. Cf. Maglaðûr [cf. DO3?] or Maglaðhonn = Black-sword (as name). Q Makalaure = Gold-cleaver, name of fifth son of Feanor, N Maglor.
[In the original form of this entry the N forms of the noun 'sword' were megil, magol...]
{c`esky mec`, stsl. mec`I, stisl. moeker, stsas máki < *mékja-, stangl. méce < *mókja-}
MEL-
love (as friend). Q mel-; melin dear, melda beloved, dear; melme love; melisse (f.), melindo (m.) lover; melima loveable, fair, Melimar = Lindar. Irregular vocalism: *ma¯lo¯ friend, Q málo. N meleth love; mell dear; mellon friend; meldir friend, f. meldis; melethron, melethril lover. mil love, affection; milui friendly, loving, kind.
{Melkor, mír, Mitra}

N

N- ;

O

O- ;

P

P- ;

R

R- ;

S

S- ;

T

T- ;

U

U- ;

W

W- ;

Y

YUR-
run. ON yurine I run, yura course; N iór course.

The End